Today I saw this amazing session about automated deploying database objects including APEX. I have some experience with CI/CD and this forced me to rethink and improve my current workflow.
Many years ago I created PHP script which exported database objects into directory structure as SQL files. It evolved to Python and Git, but the main functionality is the same. So whenever I finish my work, I run it, check changed objects in folders and commit them to Git.
Main problem is that there is no CI/CD follow up. I had a robot in previous job which was doing this, but I don't have it in my current job. Yet. It created fresh database, try to install new objects, check for compilation errors. Then it get latest release and tried to update. After every commit, automatically. Any errors were sent via email to dev team.
What these guys (Brian, Jeff and their team) created is much better version of this. It may be eye opening for you. It was for me. Now I am pumped to get some interest in devops again.
You can check the original video here, I highly recommend it.
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You can also explore Liquibase tutorial from Pretius.